Jabber («джабер», или «жабер», от англ. jabber — трёп, болтовня) —
- система мгновенного обмена сообщениями (IM) между двумя любыми абонентами сети Интернет, построенная на протоколе XMPP.
- совокупность программного обеспечения, исходного кода, технологий и идей, связанных с протоколом XMPP и его расширениями — XEP.
Разработан Джереми Миллером.
На базе использования данной технологии было создано множество частных и корпоративных серверов Jabber. Среди них выделяются такие крупные проекты, как сервис мгновенного обмена сообщениями компании Google (Google Talk) и Живого журнала.
В основе протокола XMPP лежит язык XML, имеется поддержка шлюзов в другие IM-сети, однако их реализация зависит от конкретного Jabber-сервера и подвержена нестабильности из-за закрытости коммерческих IM-сервисов. Семейство протоколов Jabber принято как стандарт RFC.
Jabber имеет ряд преимуществ по сравнению с коммерческими системами IM:
- Открытость: протокол Jabber открыт, общедоступен и достаточно лёгок для понимания; существует множество реализаций серверов и клиентов, а также библиотек с открытым исходным кодом.
- Расширяемость: с помощью пространств имён в XML можно расширить протокол Jabber для выполнения требуемых задач и для обеспечения поддержки взаимодействия между различными системами. Общие расширения разрабатываются под контролем Jabber Software Foundation.
- Децентрализованность: кто угодно может запустить свой собственный сервер Jabber, что позволяет организациям и частным лицам заниматься любыми экспериментами с IM.
- Безопасность: любой сервер Jabber может быть изолирован от общедоступной сети Jabber, многие из вариантов реализации сервера используют SSL при обмене между клиентом и сервером, и немало клиентов поддерживают шифрование с помощью PGP/GPG внутри протокола.
Jabber удовлетворяет многие потребности частных лиц и организаций. Но важно понимать, что он не является универсальным решением всех задач. В частности, Jabber не является:
- Универсальным чат-клиентом для различных систем IM — несмотря на множество клиентов Jabber под различные платформы, они не предоставляют таких возможностей по взаимодействию с различными системами IM, которые обеспечиваются программами Miranda, Trillian или Pidgin: вместо этого взаимодействие между Jabber и другими системами осуществляют шлюзы, расположенные на стороне сервера.
- Универсальным решением проблем взаимодействия с различными IM-системами — некоторые сервера Jabber предоставляют возможность взаимодействия с другими системами IM через шлюзы, которые транслируют протокол Jabber в протокол этих систем; однако только от самих систем зависит осуществление взаимодействия (к чему они подчас не стремятся, и даже наоборот).
- Единообразной IM-системой, созданной одной компанией — Jabber-cообщество не монолитно; напротив, существует большой набор общедоступных и закрытых серверов Jabber, проектов с открытым кодом, компаний по разработке ПО, использующих протокол Jabber.
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Каждый пользователь в сети имеет уникальный идентификатор, адрес — Jabber ID (сокращённо JID). Во избежание необходимости существования сервера с полным списком всех адресов, JID подобно адресу электронной почты содержит имя пользователя и DNS-адрес сервера, на котором зарегистрирован пользователь, разделённые знаком (
@). Например, пользователь
somebody, зарегистрированный на сервере
example.com, будет иметь следующий адрес (JID):
Также пользователь может подключаться, находясь в разных местах; сервер позволяет определять дополнительное значение, называемое ресурсом, который идентифицирует клиента пользователя в данный момент. Так можно включить в адрес пользователя (JID) имя его ресурса, добавив его через слэш в конце адреса. Например,
email@example.com/work, и можно будет обмениваться сообщениями с отдельными ресурсами, почти как с самостоятельными пользователями. Подробнее см. Ресурс.
Адрес (JID) самого сервера обычно не включает имя пользователя, т. е. просто
example.com (с указанием ресурса или без такового). Они используются для системных сообщений и для управления специальными возможностями сервера.
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